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tv   American History TV  CSPAN  August 30, 2014 2:00pm-3:16pm EDT

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there has been some signifigant the martial islands last week filed a suit in the international court of justice against the nine countries that have nuclear weapons for their failure to negotiate in good faith to abolish nuclear weapons in the world. there's also been two international conferences recently where 120 citizen groups have called for a complete ban of nuclear weapons for humanitarian and environmental reasons. they call for a ban because nuclear weapons breed fear among nations. they don't build security. thech the they have the capacity to destroy all life forms on earth. all complex life forms on earth. they divert funds from health care, education, social services. finally, before i introduced our guests, i'd like you to close your eyes for one moment. just close your eyes and think
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of all of the people, places, and things you love most in our world. close your eyes for a minute. what is it that you most love in this world? imagine that all of that could be destroyed by nuclear weapons. that's why we are here to make sure that that never happens. so it's my honor -- it's my privilege to introduce our honored guests. our first is clifton truman daniel. would you like to come up? [ applause ] >> he is the grandson of harry truman, the only person to order the deployment of nuclear weapons on a civilian population in the time of war. is here because he is dedicated to see they will never be used again. i believe that your grandfather is very proud of the work that you're doing. you will also hear from reiko
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yamato from hiroshima. he is a shining example of dedication. since the atomic bombing she's devoted her life to working in japan to assist atomic life survivors with a lifelong health consequences of radioactive fall out and worked on the global , stage for nuclear abolition and is speaking at the united nations today. >> it's also my honor to -- michio.e to bash [ applause ] >> he has come to us via a japanese organization that travels the world looking for peace and environmental justice. in addition, it raises money and gives material aid to people affected by natural disasters. [ applause ] >> we believe that you have the right to know about the world that you live in and that all people should commit themselves
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to abolishing nuclear weapons that could destroy life on earth as we know it. this is why we do the work that we do. go to the web site of the international campaign to abolish nuclear weapons. learn what you can do. take action now. so let's get to work. our first step is to hear what our honored guests have to say. [ applause ] >> thank you, robert. good morning. nice to see you both again. despite my background -- despite my lineage, i learned about the atomic bombings the same way you all have -- through history teaching and history books. my grandfather did not speak to me at the decision. i think at the time it was because i was very young. he died when i was 15-years-old.
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it's a hard subject to discuss. also, i don't think that he would have told me anything differently than he would have told you or that he would have said publically that he did say publically about his reasons. i learned about it the same way you did. in my history books. the bombings were about a page. a page, page and a half. there were photos of the landscape at herb oesh, -- hiroshima or nagasaki. photos of ruined buildings. there was not much about the human costs. there was no -- -- it was numbers. there wasn't any humanity in that history book. in 1998, when i was working as a journalist in north carolina, we moved from north carolina to chicago. the following year in the spring of 1999, my son wesley brought
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home a book from school. he brought home a book, "sadako and the thousand paper crane." any of you familiar with that story? she was a real little girl who gived in hiroshima. she was 2-years-old when the bomb exploded. she and her family surfingvived -- survived almost unscathed. echo -- socko -- sadako developed leukemia nine years some versions of the legends say some versions of the legends say you are granted a long life. in either case, she wanted both. she wanted to live. she folded more than a thousand paper cranes. she folded about 1,400. unfortunately that did not help. she died in 1955, she's
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12-years-old. within three years, her friends and family had raised the money to build a go -- sadako.t up to her and all the children killed, wounded and sickened by the atomic bomb. it stands in the peace park her holding up a giant paper crane. each year people from around the world leave paper cranes at that memorial. they leave them all over hiroshima or nagasaki, at her memorial alone, i think they live about 10,000 tons of paper cranes every year. just at her statue alone. i thought it was important at the time, when wesley brought this home, to read the story under it with him. it was the first time i have seen a personal story of your -- hiroshima or nagasaki.
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the first time i'd ever seen the effect on families, children, people. we read the story together. a few years later i mentioned that fact. to a japanese journalist in 2004. that story was read in japan, and my phone rang not long after that. it turned out to be masahiro. o's olderes -- sadak brother. he said i heard you read my sister story, can we meet together. can we work on something? and i said yes. it took us six years. we didn't meet until 2010. here in manhattan. masahiro and his son yuji were donating one of sadako's cranes
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to the world trade center memorial as a gesture of healing. during that meeting, he had a small plastic box. he opened it and he took out a tiny paper crane. in the hospital, sadako had to use any kind of paper she could find. candy wrappers, gift wrappers, scrap wrappers, anything she could scrounge from other patients. some of these cranes are absolutely tiny and delicate. and he took one out and dropped it into my palm. and he said that is the last crane that sadako folded before she died. at that point, he and his father asked me if i would come to the memorial ceremonies in hiroshima and nagasaki. my family and i did go, two years later, we went on august 6 and august 9 in 2012. we attended the ceremonies in hiroshima and nagasaki. we sat down and heard testimony from more than two dozen survivors. we were simply there to listen to them. to let them tell us their stories. i took my two sons and my wife,
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and we all went. they each asked only one thing of me after, and that was that i keep telling their story. so that we never do this again. it is a gift, and it is not easy for them. it is not easy for reiko and michi, and the other survivors to relive this. but they taken very seriously. and they do it out of respect, they do it out of love for the rest of us. so we understand what it is like. to live through nuclear explosion, and the hope that we never ever do it again. and that we take a step further, and get rid of all those nuclear weapons. icalical, and atyp; american.
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pical in that my grandfather was harry truman. i grew up nott thinking about nuclear weapons. that they had failsafes, that our government knew what they were doing. it is not that safe, it is not that easy. some of the stories about near misses and nuclear accidents would make your hair stand on end, how close we have come to setting one of those things off accidentally. it is a serious issue. it is something that can, even setting off a few of them could poison the atmosphere, give us nuclear winter. it is not some thing we can sit down and ignore. that job will fall to you. you have a very special opportunity here today with reiko and michi. it is a gift victim to all of us to take and do something with -- it is a gift they give to all of
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us. take the lessons, take the next steps. this is not only my future, but it is very definitely your future. and the future of all of your friends, colleagues, and family. thank you all for being here. thank you, it was nice to see you both again. and thank you all. [applause] >> hello. my name is reiko. i'm from hiroshima.
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it has been 69 years since this happened, the first new atomic bomb was dropped. i was a child at that time. and i'm here to tell you what i experienced on that day as a child. [speaking japanese] >> on august 6, the atomic bomb was dropped. [speaking japanese] >> by the year before that, and nation 44, the citizens had been living a very hard life, a severe life. [speaking japanese] >> there was hardly any food, and even our clothing were
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rationed to us with tickets. [speaking japanese] >> and because of all of the air raids in tokyo, and hearing about this, and also knowing that all of the u.s. bombers flying above our skies -- we landordered to flatten the , flatten all the buildings. it was us, the citizens, that had to do this. [speaking japanese]
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>> and by citizens, i mean children just like you, around 13 years old, 14 years old, 15 years old. and our mothers. [speaking japanese] >> we children, in elementary school, were ordered to evacuate to the countryside for safety. that we evacuated from where then utilized by the military. [speaking japanese] >> because of this, there was a lack of education for all of us young children. [speaking japanese]
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>> by that time, about half of the young children had been evacuated to the countryside. i was scheduled to evacuate on august 9. [speaking japanese] >> on august 6, early in that morning, there was not a single cloud in the sky. we -- it was a beautiful blue sky. [speaking japanese] children that were still in the town went to the schoolyard. [speaking japanese] >> we were in the schoolyard, and there came a moment when we took a rest.
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when we looked up into the sky, there was a between nine bomber making a u-turn, and it was shining bright. -- b [speaking japanese]9 bomber. >> it created a white tailwind it was quite beautiful. [speaking japanese] >> as we were looking up the sky and thinking how beautiful it was, in an instance, there was an immense flash and we were blinded. [speaking japanese] >> and so we began -- we medially ran to the original to. and what happened to myself, was that a blast of heat -- immense heat hit my back, and i was blown to the ground. [speaking japanese]
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>> just a moment after that come other was rain. and we begin to shiver. [speaking japanese] >> we later learned that was called the black rain. [speaking japanese] we noticedlater, that many of the people that were closer to the hype a sensor continued to run to our area. they were injured, or coated in blood. [speaking japanese] >> it was an overflow of people. they all cried out for help,
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asked for water, but we had no water to provide. we cannot even able to help them. [speaking japanese] >> my family was composed of six family members. on that day, my mother and my 16-year-old sister and my 13-year-old sister were at home. [speaking japanese] >> my father was located about one kilometer from the hype a center. after a well, he was brought home, completely coated in blood by two soldiers. [speaking japanese]
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>> on the eve of the second day after the bomb was dropped, my eldest sister finally made it home. she was two kilometers away from the high percent or. her back in the course of really burned. [speaking japanese] >> we had no medication or no way to treat them. and there were no doctors to help treat either. they had to just sit there or lie down in pain [speaking japanese] >> and so my mother decided to
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go to a neighbor's house, and ask for cucumbers. she brought the you covers home, slice them very thinly, and laced them -- placed them on my sister's neck and back. the pain was excruciating, and it didn't help enough, and my sister -- half naked from her waist up, would be crying in pain. [speaking japanese] >> by the second a, the overflow of people -- almost everybody had died. [speaking japanese] >> and on the third day, all of these bodies were carried, as if they were trash or garbage, on
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to all of our schoolyards. they were then cremated. the stench and black smoke in the sky was unbearable. [speaking japanese] >> even in my neighborhood, it was a home where there were five children. they had been waiting for days for their mother to return. on the second day, their mother finally made it home, all-black, and on four legs. at the moment she arrived town, she fell over and died, and left the five children on their own. [speaking japanese] >> in another neighboring home,
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there was a mother that had been waiting for her daughter. her daughter never returned. bakko, lunchbento boxes, and for months she continued to search for her daughter, but never found her. [speaking japanese] >> there was no help for these people. never were they able to meet their families again. there were so many people who died with no names. [speaking japanese] >> it is those deaths that we will never be able to forget. [speaking japanese]
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>> after cremating all of these bodies, they were buried into the ground. as a result of the war, we had very little to eat. we decided to plant sweet potatoes into the ground. when it was finally harvest time, the following year, and we dug up -- more than sweet potatoes, there were so many bones. [speaking japanese] >> within that year, in hiroshima and august sake, 210,000 lost their lives. saki, to sake -- 10,000 lost their lives. [speaking japanese]
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>> and in the early years, and for years after that, there was no way to treat what happened to these people. because the nuclear weapon was something new, nobody knew how to treat the people that were being affected by the results. [speaking japanese] >> we call this weapon a weapon of the devil. [speaking japanese]
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>> there are still to this day so many people that are experiencing the after effects, including radiation. there are some of people that experienced it during that time, severe burns, or being blast into the air. this type of weapon is completely indiscriminate of who it attacks. [speaking japanese] >> there's just so many he back shown that are experiencing health issues and pain. this is because there has not been any clear result as to the research of what the effects of radiation are. [speaking japanese]
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>> this is the reason why we talk to all of the people of the world, the people in this world because this weapon is an inhumane weapon. we want to rid the entire world of these nuclear weapons. [speaking japanese] >> it is my desire, on behalf of all of the hibakusha, that if you will listen to our plea, our story, and carry it within your young power, and your energy -- do something.
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relay our message to the we can actually have a world of peace, free of nuclear weapons, and a safe one for your own selves in the future. [speaking japanese] >> thank you very much. [applause] the would like to welcome students from the eagle academy. [laughter] [applause] >> welcome. we know it was a long way to get here today. we are glad that you made it.
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[speaking japanese] >> hello, everyone. [speaking japanese]
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>> my name is michio hatch area. [speaking japanese] >> i would like to talk to you my story. what i experienced when i was a years old. i was in the second grade grammar school. [speaking japanese] this is a picture of the current nagasaki city. [speaking japanese] >> it is a dutiful city, and it is well-known internationally as well. [speaking japanese] >> 69 years ago, at the
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hypocenter, that is the place where the atomic bomb was dropped. [speaking japanese] >> it exploded 500 meters above the ground. [speaking japanese] >> at that time, my house was located three to four kilometers away from the hypocenter. [speaking japanese] nagasaki was ahypocente mountainous area. [speaking japanese]
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>> as they surrounded the port area, there were residential areas and factories. [speaking japanese] >> let me explain to you about nagasaki city and this map. the green dot is the hypocenter. [speaking japanese] >> when the bomb was dropped, the actual heat of the bomb was 3000 to 4000 centigrade. [speaking japanese] herech circle that you see is marked every 300 meters. [speaking japanese]
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>> within a one kilometer area, all life -- animals and plants were completely destroyed. [speaking japanese] >> at that time there was radiation. [speaking japanese] >> heat ray, in a blast. [speaking japanese] >> and explosive blast. [speaking japanese] >> when it comes to the blast, at the one kilometer away from the hypocenter, the speed of the blast was four times faster than
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a baseball thrown by the professional baseball player picture. -- professional baseball pitcher. [speaking japanese] andlease imagine the stones pieces avoid, and things like that were just flying against you. [speaking japanese] died are many people who because of these flung objects. [speaking japanese] >> it was 1945, august night. the atomic bomb was dropped. [speaking japanese]
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>> this picture was taken two to three days prior to when the atomic bomb was dropped. [speaking japanese] >> by the american forces. [speaking japanese] >> can you see the river running through the city? [speaking japanese] >> my best friend and i were supposed to go swimming through that river the day before the atomic bomb was dropped. [speaking japanese] >> the day when the bomb was dropped, before that, though i
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wanted to go swimming the river with my friend, my mother stopped me. because i hadn't finished my homework for summer vacation. so my mother told me, you have to finish before you go swimming. [speaking japanese] >> so i stayed home without going swimming. this is a picture that was taken three days after the atomic bomb was dropped. [speaking japanese] >> as you can see, there is nothing remained. [speaking japanese]
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>> this is something very similar to my situation at that time. i was studying at home, and there was the strong flash of light. [speaking japanese] >> at that time, i thought there was a huge bomb that was dropped. i covered my eyes and ears, and made my whole body -- but myself under something. -- put myself under something. [speaking japanese] >> then i experienced a huge blast. [speaking japanese] >> we were inside a house, and
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the furniture pieces and the ofce of glass -- pieces glass were just flying against us, like a knife. [speaking japanese] >> previously, she explained about her older brother who was injured with flying glass, this is what happened. [speaking japanese] >> these pictures were taken within one kilometer diameter from the hypocenter. as you can see, the animals and human people were dying like this.
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[speaking japanese] >> take a look at this picture. [speaking japanese] >> as i explained before, that day, i was supposed to go swimming. i know my friend went there to swim, i remained home because my mother stopped me going. [speaking japanese] boy wasot sure if this my friend are not -- or not. [speaking japanese] >> however, every single time i see this picture, that could be myself. when i think of it, it is
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excruciating. i get very sad. [speaking japanese] >> this is a picture of mother dead, right on the platform. [speaking japanese] >> this place was actually within one kilometer diameter. there was no way they can survive. [speaking japanese] >> at that time, nagasaki was to imagine thousand people -- 210,000 people. [speaking japanese] >> one third of them died. [speaking japanese]
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>> there were some good people who got injured, and medical facilities were not enough. schoolrgency places, facilities were used in order to treat injured people. [speaking japanese] picture of injured people being brought to school buildings. [speaking japanese] >> regular classrooms became hospital rooms. [speaking japanese]
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>> each room was filled people who were dying, that seriously injured, or severely burned. [speaking japanese] >> in about a month, everyone in this classroom disappeared. [speaking japanese] >> means all of them died. [speaking japanese] >> it was in the midst of summer. it was very hot. it was an urgent matter to treat the dead bodies, otherwise it would be completely rotten. [speaking japanese]
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>> school grounds were utilized as a cremating spot. [speaking japanese] >> they dug a big hole, filled with dead bodies, and they poured gasoline, and it burned. without knowing who they were. [speaking japanese] >> this is a picture of actual cremation on the school ground. [speaking japanese]
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>> this cremation lasted, regardless, daytime or nighttime. i just continued day after day. [speaking japanese] >> this was a playground, where i used to play as a kid with my friends. [speaking japanese] >> at the beginning, we were so fearful, because we knew they were burning human bodies. gradually, as you observe
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this kind of activity day by day, we kind of get used to it. our physical distance got closer and closer. [speaking japanese] >> as we got closer to the cremating scene, we saw a head dropping down, or an arm dropping down. we were able to see that. [speaking japanese] >> as a little child, i said oh, the head dropped down.
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[speaking japanese] >> as i said so, my family members came and yelled at me -- don't say such a thing. [speaking japanese] >> even at eight years old, i grew up as i witnessed what the war is like. [speaking japanese] >> i came here to tell you how important it is, and you have to make sure that war will never happen. [speaking japanese]
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>> after our testimonies, please go back home and tell what you witnessed, what you have heard it to your family. do your parents. to your parents. [speaking japanese] >> these ask your parents when they -- pleaseplaces extend what they ask to your coworkers and friends, please stop war, and abolish nuclear weapons. please think about the world of peace. [speaking japanese]
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>> i used to have seven family members. [speaking japanese] among five siblings, four of them got cancers. [speaking japanese] died of lungther cancer. [speaking japanese] >> my second brother suffered sorry, i'm not familiar with the term of.
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-- esophagus. thank you. he got cancer of that area, and it was a very delicate area. the doctor was not sure whether he should operate there or not. [speaking japanese] >> my third brother got cancer prostateh cancer and cancer. [speaking japanese] >> so far, i haven't gotten any cancer yet read but you never
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know. [speaking japanese] >> what i want to say here is, the war and nuclear weapons is not the question of that particular moment. long, longns last afterwards. [speaking japanese] >> as you know, in nagasaki, there is this people statue for peace. there is also a peace memorial. [speaking japanese]
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>> praying for the war list world -- weless have three important principles. possessed oreither manufacturer nuclear weapons, nor shall it permit their introduction into japanese territory. [speaking japanese] >> in japan, our constitution clearly states in its article nine that japan will never engage in wars. this is internationally clearly declared. [speaking japanese]
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cranes. is a peacew, there treaty that states they are supposed to protect each other. [speaking japanese] >> may be can say that japan is protected by the u.s. [speaking japanese] >> however, japan's constitution says we will never engage in a war. [speaking japanese]
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>> this april 9, noble t's academy.- peace [speaking japanese] >> let's protect the peaceful world. thank you very much. [applause]
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>> i understand we have some time for questions now. i'm told that each of the schools was asked to pick a designated question asker. i'm just going to go down the list, and see who is representing each school. eagle academy, do you have a designated question asker? sharedns can be questions, share thoughts from a can be for any one of us. there is debate. ok, whoever -- yeah. stand up, there you go.
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>> one question i have to ask, you guys are giving us your stories and telling us about how nuclear weapons are bad. a beasley, war is bad. i have one question. us, not usyou tell but our children's children, who will hear about world war ii, but they won't really know what it is like us. they are so much further down the line they want to realize. what would you say to them? further down the line, where technology is better, what would you say to them?
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>> what would you say to future generations, their grandchildren? what would you tell them about the dangers, about what happened , what would you say speaking ahead to generations. >> [speaking japanese]
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>> i completely understand it your sentiment on wanted here what we would say to future generations. however, i believe it is extremely important that we put our efforts towards right now. right now, today. there are some in a nuclear weapons out there right now in this world. ourselves, already, there are so many people that have no experience or know anything directly about the war. even in japan, two thirds of the population know nothing about war. , oursense, we as hibakusha generation is panicking as to how we can do as much as we can to abolish all nuclear weapons from this world. it is very do so,
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important that we keep a record, continue to relay the facts of history. especially on educational role. [applause] >> to add to that, something quickly that was said yesterday when we were doing this. if your grandchild comes to your new year's for now, and wants to tell him or her that you heard firsthand what it was like. it becomes your responsibility to carry that as well. your designated question asker? >> [speaking japanese]
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>> the question is -- ms. yamada , you said you did not receive any education during that time. how did you receive education thereafter? >> [speaking japanese]
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>> although i said there was hardly any education, it did not mean that we all did not have education. half were able to continue with the education and half of the were to be in the work core. one reason is because the school building was being utilized by the military. hiroshima, education is a vital sector of the society. we are back in two education mode fairly quickly. after the bomb was dropped, by the end of september many schools had started over again.
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we did not have any good textbooks or anything of that sort, but by the end of the year we were already taking our tests in order to get to the next level of education. [applause] marble hill? were you able to forget about the images of the bomb? how did you overcome the tragedy , mentally and emotionally speaking? >> [speaking japanese] to forgetmpossible about it, -- forget about the atomic bombing. >> [speaking japanese]
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mind isremains in my that flash of light. >> [speaking japanese] >> when i witnessed many people severely, severely burned. they were saying, please give me some water. please give me some water. that scene will never go away. >> [speaking japanese] >> it has been almost seven
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70 yearsce then -- since then and what i really want to do is i want you to know what i experienced. that is it. [applause] >> high school? have i got that right? there we go. what do you guys think about nuclear power? power plants and uranium and stuff? >> [speaking japanese]
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>> of course, especially with fukushimaened at the f powerplant, we were tentative to what was happening. we strongly believe that nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons are both sides of one coin. we would really, really like for the world to change to natural energy. pleaing tove been the inner co--- energy company
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that owned the powerplant to find a way to support, health-wise and financially, the people that were victims of the accidents. >> [speaking japanese] >> currently in japan, there are 54 nuclear reactors. currently, none of them are operating. >> [speaking japanese] imagine, nuclear power plant companies and other industries are pushing for reopening nuclear reactors right
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now. [speaking japanese] there is a very difficult situation between local municipalities who are against reopening nuclear power plants ,nd the policy of the nation who is willing to reopen the nuclear reactors. thank you. [applause] >> we have about three minutes left. york harbore new school and young women's leadership school. maybe the questions are close enough that we can feel both. sunk., we are
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>> i was wondering what some you suggest for solving conflicts besides nuclear weapons and war. >> [speaking japanese]
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of course, for me personally, the ideal would be to communicate and have discussion and talks. i believe that we should never utilize power or force to get our points across. but more so, even though my ideal is communication, i would like to ask all of you, what do you think? what do you think you can do or what other countries can do to solve all the conflicts in the world? [applause] >> apparently we have been granted five more minutes. i lied about time. we have young women's leadership school. you can indeed ask a question. [applause]
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ask if there was any resentment from the whole not, how did you move on or how did you forgive? >> [speaking japanese]
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>> there is no hatred, per se. i've got two different countries and have often been asked, do you hate america? i do not hate america. how can i hate america? it was war. even japan was horrible. it is warp you -- or. -- it was war. people do things that can cause hatred. you should not have hatred. for the future, we should consider the other parties and learn how to forgive and how to work to get there for the future without any hatred. [applause] sorry, i forgot the last phrase.
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the only thing i do hate our nuclear weapons. [laughter] [applause] >> [speaking japanese] >> i do not have any hatred against the u.s., but it is a clear fact that this country has
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been relying on its military power. to howp to this country they will be with nuclear power. i think they should either reduce or abolish and as a global leader, this country has direction.e of its that is my concern. u.s. shows this new irection, i cannot say that -- i'm sorry. >> [speaking japanese] >> until this policy becomes clear, i cannot say that i can forgive what they have done to japan. thank you. [applause]
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>> i believe that concludes the program. dr. sullivan has some final words. for me, speaking as an american and as harry truman's grandson, they bring these stories to me without resentment, without anger, only in the name of understanding and i think i would have been a fool not to listen to them and try to do something. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2014] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] you're watching american history tv all weekend, every weekend on c-span 3. to join the conversation, like us on facebook. this labor day on the c-span networks, on c-span at 5:30
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eastern, and education department summit on bullying in schools. at 8:00, bill nye the science guy and can hamm debate -- ken hamm debate evolution. representative james clyburn talks about his life. at 8:30, author sylvia dukes morris on her book "price of fame." lewis00 p.m., michael discusses the hidden world of high-frequency stock trading. on american history tv, at 7:15 p.m., american artifacts looks at declassified documents related to the 1964 gulf of tonkin incident that led to the escalation of the vietnam war. --sident warned's harting president warren harding's
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recently released love letters. find our television schedule at and let us know what you think about the programs you're watching. join the c-span conversation. like us on facebook, follow us on twitter. >> next on the presidency, panelists describe their work with president bush on the americans with disabilities act of 1990 and the civil rights act of 1991. speakers include former bush administration officials. the program was hosted by the george bush presidential library foundation to mark the 25th anniversary of his presidency. this is about 40 minutes.
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>> i have been told that i should start by saying howdy. [laughter] i really do thank you all for being here. it is a great honor for me to take this panel off. i want to start introducing senator harkin who is known to all of you. he was a lead on the ada years ago when 41 bush was president. he helped get it through congress. sitting here is ben carson, famous neurosurgeon. i am going to pause after we talk about the ada to give him more introduction. it is going to be a different statute he is talking about. i will explain that in a minute. john wodatch was one of the principal negotiators at the department of justice for this legislation. a lot of the language in the bill, he actually wrote. he knew what he was doing.


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